Glossaire

Coût
Le coût d’un algorithme est le nombre d’opérations élémentaires nécessaires pour qu’il se termine (une opération numérique, la consultation d’une variable, un test…) On le calcule rarement précisément mais on veur toujours avoir un ordre de grandeur : si mon problème est dix fois plus grand, l’algorithme sera combien sera combien de fois plus lent ?
Heuristique
Je cite wikipedia : En optimisation combinatoire, en théorie des graphes, en théorie de la complexité des algorithmes et en intelligence artificielle, une heuristique est une méthode de calcul qui fournit rapidement (en temps polynomial) une solution réalisable, pas nécessairement optimale, pour un problème d’optimisation NP-difficile.
Python
Voir Python.
Quelconque (ou parfois aléatoire)
Lorsqu’on désigne un élément quelconque ou un ordre quelconque, cela veut dire qu’on envisage n’importe lequel, c’est-à-dire tous. Un ordre quelconque cela désigne un ordre qui n’est pas déterminé par une règle, comme si on avait jeté les éléments pêle-mêle. Un algorithme qui fonctionne avec un élément quelconque fonctionne avec tous les éléments.
Récurrence
Voir récurrence. Quand on doit résoudre un problème et qu’on ne sait pas comment l’aborder, une idée consiste à supposer qu’on sait résoudre le problème pour

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éléments puis à voir comment adapter cette solution pour

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éléments.
Scratch
Scratch est un langage de programmation visuel destiné à l’apprentissage de la programmation.
Tri
On trie des objets ou des éléments pour mieux les retrouver plus tard. Il y a de nombreuses manières de trier : algorithmes de tri